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EV charging levels

EV charging equipment types an EV charging levels

EV charging equipment is classified in levels as AC1, AC2 and DC. The difference is the type of voltage used and the rate at which the batteries are recharged. Of course, total charging time is based on how discharged the battery is. So EV recharging can range from 20-mins to as long as 20-hrs. The EV charging equipment is referred to as electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE).

AC1 (Level 1)

Level 1 EV charging is capable of recharging EV batteries at the rate of 2-5 miles of range for every 1 hour of charging using a J1772 connector.

Level 1 equipment recharges the vehicle with a 120 volt (V) AC plug. The plug going into the home’s receptacle is a standard 3-prong design. The plug that connects to the vehicle charging port is referred to as SAE J1772 plug, although t Tesla vehicles have a unique connector. Tesla vehicles come with a J1772 adapter, allowing them use non-Tesla charging equipment. Eight hours of charging at 120 V can replenish about 40 miles of electric range for a mid-size EV.

AC2 (Level 2)

Level 1 EV charging is capable of recharging EV batteries at the rate of 0 to 20 miles of range per 1 hour of charging using a J1772 connector.

AC Level 2 equipment connects to 240-V in homes or 208-V in a commercial installation. Level 2 equipment can charge a typical EV battery overnight. For home use, most Level 2 chargers operate at 30-amps (on a 40-amp circuit), while in commercial applications they can operate at up to 80-amps. Most public chargers are Level 2.

DC Fast Charging

Direct-current (DC) fast charging equipment (typically 208/480 V AC three-phase input) allows for rapid charging (60 to 80 miles of range per 20 minutes of charging) along heavy traffic corridors at installed stations. In 2020, slightly over 15% of public EV chargers were DC fast chargers.

Three types of DC fast charging systems

SAE Combined Charging System (CCS)

The CCS connector (J1772) allows the driver to use the same charge port whether charging with Level 1, Level 2, or DC fast equipment. The only difference is that the DC fast charging connector has two additional bottom pins.

The CHAdeMO connector is the most common of the three connector types.

Tesla vehicles have a unique connector that works for all their charging levels including their fast charging option. Tesla calls this a Supercharger. Although Tesla vehicles do not have a CHAdeMO charge port and do not come with a CHAdeMO adapter, Tesla does sell an adapter.

EV charging connectors




Posted on by Rick Muscoplat


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