How to troubleshoot HID headlights
First, understand how HID headlights work
Why are High Intensity Discharge headlights are better than halogen headlight bulbs
• 3x more light than halogen bulbs
• 2x more light spread on the road than halogen bulbs
• HID headlights use 2/3 less power than halogen bulbs
• HID bulbs last 3x longer than halogen bulbs
• HID bulbs produce visible and ultraviolet wavelengths so highway signs and other reflective surfaces glow.
HID HEADLIGHT COMPONENTS
An HID bulb consists of outer shell made from cerium-doped quartz. The outer shell houses the inner bulb or “arc tube.” The inner quartz envelope is made from fused quartz with two tungsten electrodes. The material is special quartz that can withstand the high arc temperature, which burns at up to 1,500°F. When the bulb “ignites” it creates a glowing arc between the two electrodes. The inner bulb is filled with xenon gas and xenon amplifies the light intensity from the arc.
When a powerful current is applied to the electrodes, it lights an ARC, forming two bright or “hot” spots, one near each electrode. The arc is ionized gas that produces a plasma discharge that generates high intensity light.
To learn more about HID headlight bulb terminology, read this post
The ballast’s job is to regulate power to the HID bulb to maintain the arc. It must provide a constant 35 watts at 70 to 110 volts. The HID ignitor starts the arc with very high voltage, but the ballast maintains the arc.
The HID ignitor boosts voltage coming from the ballast to around 15,000 to 25,000 volts to jump the air gap between the two electrodes and “light” the arc. Once the arc is “lit,” the ballast maintains the arc.
How HID headlights are wired
Is it the HID bulb or the ballast?
When drivers experience HID headlight problems they usually want to know if they should replace the HID bulb or the ballast or both. Here’s a way to troubleshoot HID headlight problems. But first, you have to understand how HID headlights work
An HID ballast is a boosting transformer that converts battery voltage into the approximately 75 to 110 volts needed to maintain the arc.
The ballast is designed to detect bulb shut down. If the bulb turns off, the ballast will automatically restart the bulb within ½ second. This happens so quickly you may not even notice that it shut off in the first place.
However, as the bulb ages, it may shut off (drop its arc) more often. That can happen as many as 30 times per minute. When that occurs, the ballast tends to overheat. To protect itself, the ballast itself will shut down. It will not reset itself. The ballast can only be reset by turning the headlight switch off and then on again. However, allow a few minutes cooling time between attempts to allow the ballast to cool down. If you reset have to repeatedly reset the ballast that’s often a sign of a bad HID bulb.
When it comes to HID headlight problems, you want to know if it’s the HID headlight bulb or the ballast?
Signs of a bad HID headlight bulb
• HID headlight bulb flickering is the EARLIEST sign of bulb failure.
• HID headlight bulb shuts off after being on for a while. Shut off is sporadic and unpredictable but happens more and more often over the next 100 hours of operation.
• HID headlight bulb gives off a dim pink glow
HID headlight bulb diagnostic tips
Swap the problem bulb to the opposite side. If it works there without shutting off, the problem is in the ballast or ignitor.
A worn bulb tends to lose its arc, so the ballast tries to relight it. As mentioned above, the ballast will repeatedly try to re-strike the bulb until it overheats and shuts down. If your HID bulb shuts off sporadically and unpredictably; maybe just once in a 24-hr period, try this.
Turn on the HID headlights and wait for the bulb to shut off by itself. Then turn off your headlight switch and immediately turn it back on. This resets the ballast. If the bulb lights with a weak pink/purple color, it’s usually a bad bulb.
HID ballast diagnostic tip
Turn on your HID headlights. If both lights are lit, wait for one bulb to turn off. If one doesn’t light when you turn on the headlights, proceed with this test:
Have a helper watch the HID bulb closely as you turn on the headlight switch. They’re looking for any sign of flicker. If there’s no sign of lighting, it’s usually a bad ballast or igniter.
Replace an HID bulb
HID systems have very high voltages. Always disconnect the connector to the ballast before disconnecting the wire to the igniter or HID bulb.
Differences between HID bulbs
There are four basic types of HID bulbs: D1, D2a, S and R
D1 series bulbs have a built in igniter. D2 series bulbs do not
An “R” HID bulb is designed to fit in a traditional reflector style headlight assembly. All R HID bulbs have a black painted mask on the glass to shield oncoming drivers from glare.
An “S” HID bulb is designed to fit in a projector-style headlight assembly. It does not have the black mask because projector headlights have a built-in internal shield to prevent glare.
©, 2018 Rick MuscoplatPosted on by Rick Muscoplat