Warm up your car in winter?
Winter is here and so the debate begins again; should you warm up your car in winter before driving or just put it in gear and go? A lot of the information in favor of warming up your car in winter is just plain WRONG. The “warm it up” recommendation comes from a time when engines were far less thermally efficient and needed that warm up to better vaporize the fuel.
Newer cars don’t have carburetors and don’t need to warm up. Plus, they warm faster when driving than when idling. In addition to warming faster when driving than idling, there are other reasons to avoid warming your car in winter:
• newer engines use lower viscosity 0W-20 and 5W-20 oil that flows better than older 10W-30 oils when cold.
• fuel injection does a much better job of vaporizing the gas than older carburetors. Carbureted engines relied on a warm intake manifold directly below the carburetor to help vaporize gas in cold weather. Port fuel injected engines don’t need a warm intake manifold to vaporize fuel and direct injection engines inject the fuel directly into the combustion chamber, totally eliminating the need for a warm manifold.
Here’s why warming your car in winter is bad for it
Idling heats your coolant; oil, not so much
Read that again: idling your engine heats your coolant, not your oil. Oil’s job is to lubricate and reduce friction while also removing the heat generated by friction. An idling engine puts almost very little load on the oil which means the heat generated by friction is at its lowest. So idling is the least effective way to warm oil. As the engine idles, the oil picks up some heat from the engine and then drains back down to an ice cold sump that’s exposed to the outside elements, so it cools again. In extremely cold weather the oil in the sump can lose more BTUs than it picked up when circulating through the engine.
Idling loads the oil with gas
A cold engine needs a rich air/fuel mixture to ignite and overcome the heat loss produced by the cold metal combustion chamber. That rich mixture acts as a solvent and washes oil off the cylinder walls, so you actually get less lubrication during warm-up. Because some of the combustion is quenched by the cold cylinder walls, a portion of the rich fuel mixture doesn’t burn. That rich fuel/exhaust blow-by, along with the oil washed off the cylinder wall ends up in the sump where it churns into the oil. That fuel and water need to boil off in order to prevent sludge formation. But oil needs to reach at least 150° before it can start burning off the raw gas and water. It can’t reach that temperature while idling.
Again, idling can bring your COOLANT above 150°, but it can’t bring your oil to 150°. Only driving can heat it up to the point. So putting your car in gear and driving is the fastest way to heat your oil and burn off the raw gas and water. You’re kidding yourself if you think you’re helping your oil warm up by idling the engine.
The biggest downside to warming your car in winter is that you’re actually “lubricating” your camshaft and internal engine parts with oil that contains raw gas and water. Raw gas and water don’t lubricate very well. In fact, the raw gas in the oil actually removes the boundary lubrication needed to prevent metal to metal contact on the camshaft lobes and bearings. In other words cold idling accelerates engine wear. That’s whey idling you car in winter is BAD for it
Why so much raw gas enters the crankcase
The cold metal in the cylinder and cylinder head quenches combustion. To combat the quenching effect, a cold engine needs a very rich air/fuel mixture so more of the combustion survives the chill of the cold engine. In addition to the quenching issue, a closed throttle results in low airflow is idle speeds. Low airflow results in less turbulence and poorer vaporization. So combustion rates are much lower at idle.
All engines, even new ones, produce blowby gasses. But, when you combine the richer air/fuel mixture and lower air velocity in a cold engine, you wind up with blow-by gasses that contain more unburned (raw fuel) and water. When raw fuel and water mix with oil in the crankcase, you get SLUDGE.
If you don’t drive your car long enough to burn off that raw gas and water, the sludge will turn more viscous and build up in the oil pan and oil passages. Sludge is incredibly bad for your engine.
Don’t confuse oil flow with oil pressure
FACT: In a stone cold engine, oil develops proper pressure within seconds
Oil pressure is what keeps metal parts from touching one another. Most oil pressure sensors are designed to turn off the oil light once oil pressure reaches a minimum of around 7-psi. Cold oil can easily reach minimum pressure within seconds of start-up. So you’ve got metal-to-metal contact protection almost immediately after starting a cold engine. What you don’t have is great oil flow.
Oil Flow versus pressure causes great confusion
To really understand the difference between oil flow versus pressure we have to go back to the basics:
Oil’s job is to prevent metal-to-metal contact, to lubricate to reduce friction and to remove heat.
Since we know that a cold engine can develop enough oil pressure to prevent metal-to-metal contact, the question turns to; Can it flow well enough to lubricate and remove heat? Get ready for the surprise answer……..not really. Cold oil does flow, just not very well (see myth busting below).
Cold oil doesn’t flow well. It has to warm up to provide maximum lubrication and heat removal. There’s really not much dispute over that fact.
So the next question, “What the best way to warm up oil so it can do it’s job?” Not by idling! Driving is the single best way to warm up oil.
Busting cold oil flow myths
It’s a myth that cold oil doesn’t flow
Cold oil is cold and it is thick, but that doesn’t mean it doesn’t flow.
Fact: Cold oil is not frozen solid!
Fact: Cold oil DOES flow in cold startups
Amsoil has a youtube video that purports to show the flow difference between conventional oil and synthetic oil at -40C. Amsoil chills both oils and pours them out of a beaker. The results are stunning!
The conventional oil has the consistency of grease, while the synthetic oil flows out of the beaker. But what does that prove? I mean your engine doesn’t rely on gravity to move oil through the engine. It pumps it through the engine with a positive displacement gear pump.
A Positive Displacement Pump, unlike a Centrifugal or Roto-dynamic Pump, will produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter the temperature or viscosity of the oil.
A Positive Displacement Pump is a “constant flow machine.” It pumps oil even in the coldest temperatures, no matter the thickness of the oil. As long as the gears are turning and the exit path isn’t blocked, a positive displacement oil pump with move oil.
If cold engine oil was solid and the oil pump couldn’t pump it, the pump, due to its very design, would actually self destruct. Yet you don’t see exploding
oil pumps in winter. Look at the positive displacement oil pumps to the right and you’ll see that if the oil was frozen solid, the gears would just break off. They don’t. So let’s just stop repeating that stupid statement that cold oil doesn’t flow.
The truth is, if you’re using the proper viscosity oil, it’ll start flowing within seconds after starting and you’ll have enough oil flow to start driving.
MYTH: Driving a cold engine causes damage and makes it wear out faster
Fact: 90% of engine wear takes place during cold startup. But that wear happens during the first 2-5 seconds after firing up, before oil pressure builds to minimum. However, once the oil light turns off, you have enough oil pressure to prevent wear.
If you believe that it’s best to let the oil warm up so it can flow better, then the last thing you want to do is let it idle. That’s because idling is the least effective way to warm engine oil. Driving is the most effective way to warm oil.
Engine coolant temperature is NOT an indication of OIL temperature!!
Read that again. Coolant temperature is NOT an indication of OIL temperature!!
Your engine coolant may be up to operating temperature, but the 5 quarts of oil in you pan is still cold. Idling doesn’t warm it. In fact, on a cold day, you’ll lose MORE oil heat by letting your engine idle than you will by DRIVING it.
READ THAT AGAIN
Idling a cold engine doesn’t burn off the raw fuel and water in your oil
What does your owner’s manual say?
The nay-sayers point to issues like: “metal contracts when cold and needs time to warm up” and “engines are like old people whose muscles need to limber up when getting out of bed.”
It’s true that metal parts contract when cold. But to think that engines should sit and idle to warm them up would be to believe that the engineers missed class the day the instructors talked about expansion and contraction.
Trust me, they didn’t; engineers understand expansion and contraction very well. If they were worried out metal expanding before operating your vehicle, they would TELL you to let it warm up. In fact, the lawyers would INSIST that they tell you to let it warm up. No, they’d devote the first 20 pages of the owner’s manual with big WARNINGS telling you not to drive a cold engine. But they don’t. Are the engineers stupid? Were the corporate lawyers out for martinis when it was time to review the owner’s manual?
Ever boarded a plane on its first trip in the morning? Do they start the engine and let it idle for 10 minutes before taking off? Nope. They start the engines and immediately get it to idle speed. Then they push back from the gate and start taxiing.
Having said that, there are exceptions: Some spray lubrication system designs DO require a longer warm up period and the instructions in your owner’s manual always take precedence over my general advice. If your owner’s manual recommends a several minute warm up, FOLLOW THAT ADVICE.
Ok then, how long should you let your car warm up before driving?
Late model engines with direct fuel injection should be ready to drive in about 45 seconds. That’s about the time it takes clear the windows, buckle up, turn on the heat and radio. Then it’s time to DRIVE. If you’re uncomfortable with driving that soon, wait two minutes. But after that, you should put it in gear and go.
At that point you’ll have enough oil flow to fully lubricate both the high pressure fuel pump and camshaft. High pressure fuel pumps boost gasoline pressure to almost 2,000-psi. so they do need a few seconds of warm up time to get enough flow to the camshaft to prevent cam wear.
But on non direct injection engine, 15-30-seconds of warmup is plenty.
But don’t floor it. How to drive after you’ve started your engine in winter
Just because car makers recommend driving after starting doesn’t mean you can put the pedal to the metal. Start the engine and let it run while you buckle up, turn on the radio and defrosters. Then put it in gear and drive GENTLY for the first 3-4 minutes. At that point, you’ve got good oil flow and pressure.
• Avoid jack rabbit starts and heavy acceleration for the first 3-4 minutes.
• Avoid heavy acceleration.
Hammering the pedal on a cold engine, especially an engine with a turbo, can DESTROY the turbo and the engine bearings.
©, 2018 Rick Muscoplat
Posted on by Rick Muscoplat